Benign Hematological Diseases
Iron Deficiency Anemia
This is the most common type of anemia world wide. Patients usually have weakness, easy fatiguability, breathlessness, urge to eat chalk, mud or ice etc. It can be easily diagnosed and treatment involves oral or iv iron therapy.
Vitamin B12 Deficiency Anemia
This type of anemia is commonly seen in patients on pure vegetarian diet and is due to deficiency of vitamin b12 in the diet. The patient presents with weakness and lethargy.
This is a severe form of anemia where the patient also develops low white blood cells and platelets. This is due to failure of our bone marrow. Bone marrow is the soft part of our bones which produces all blood cells and is important for our survival. The patient presents with weakness, bleeding manifestations and infections. Treatment involves bone marrow transplant or ATG therapy.
Thalassemia major is an inherited form of severe anemia where the child requires life long blood transfusions. Bone marrow transplant is the definitive cure for this disease.
Sickle Cell Anemias
In this type of another inherited anemia the red blood cells become sickle shaped and obstruct the flow of blood to vital organs. The treatment is bone marrow transplant but patients can also be given medicines to decrease the symptoms of the disease.
In this disease the red blood cells become spherical shaped and are easily destroyed leading to anemia, jaundice and increase in the size of spleen.
Immune Thrombocytopenia (ITP)
In ITP the body’s own immune cells destroy platelets resulting in decreased number of platelets called thrombocytopenia. These patients are at increased risk of bleeding. Treatment is with oral medicines or injections.
Autoimmune Hemolytic Anemia (AIHA)
Here the body’s immune cells destroy the red blood cells resulting in anemia.
This is an inherited disease where the blood clotting factors are reduced resulting in prolonged and sometimes life-threatening bleeding. Treatment involves replacement of factor which is absent like factor viii or factor IX (Hemophilia A OR B)
Deep Vein Thrombosis or DVT
This is a condition in which the blood clots in our lagre veins. This causes pain and swelling of the limb. Treatment involves blood thinners.
This is a condition where the white blood cells decrease resulting in increased risk of infections.
Malignant Hematological Diseases
Acute Myeloid Leukemia
This is a form of blood cancer where the patients present with bleeding and fever. It requires immediate treatment which involves chemotherapy depending upon the physicial fitness of the patient. Further treatment may require bone marrow transplant as definite cure in intermediate and high risk or relapsed patients.
Chronic Myeloid Leukemia
This is a slowly progressing form of blood cancer. The patients usually present with increased white blood cells and enlarged spleen. It can be treated with oral medicines.
Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia
This is another form of aggressive blood cancer which is more common in children and is treated with chemotherapy. The patients usually present with bony pains, gland swellings and fever.
Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia
This slow growing leukemia is seen mostly in elderly patients and remains in early stages for many years. When needed the treatment involves chemotherapy, which can be given by injections or by oral medicines.
Non-Hodgkin Lymphomas (B Cell and T Cell NHL)
Lymphoma means the cancer of lymph glands which are store house of white blood cells called lymphocytes. There are two types of lymphocytes – b and t cells so lymphomas can be B cell lymphoma or T cell lymphoma. The two major types of B cell lymphomas are diffuse large B cell lymphoma and follicular lymphoma. There diagnosis requires lymph node biopsy and PET-CT scan. Treatment is by chemotherapy.
This is a type of lymphoma commonly seen in young people and has good prognosis if treated in early stage.
This is a type of blood cancer which arises form bones as plasma cells reside there. The patient presents with weak and fractured bones, anemia and kidney problems. These patients need chemotherapy followed by autologous stem cell transplant.
This is a group of disorders characterized by low blood cells with anemia, low platelets and low white blood cells. These disorders have risk of progression to leukemia.
In this disorder the bone marrow is replaced by fibrous tissue with relative paucity of blood cells. Patients develop anemia and splenomegaly.
These patients present with increase in hemoglobin levels which can result in thrombosis. Treatment is to remove the excess of blood from the body.
These patient present with high platelet counts which can clot the blood vessels or can sometimes cause bleeding.